According to the South African ten-year plan for innovation (see Executive Summary of 10 Yr strategic plan), the level of economic growth requires continual advances in technological innovation and the production of new knowledge. South Africa has growth targets which include five Grand Challenges:
- The “Farmer to Pharma” value chain to strengthen the bio-economy and become a world leader in biotechnology and the pharmaceuticals
- Space science and technology – South Africa should become a key contributor to global space science through innovations in space sciences, earth observation, communications, navigation and engineering.
- Energy security – safe, clean, affordable and reliable energy supply,
- Global change science - a focus on climate change –
- Human and social dynamics – a greater global understanding of shifting social dynamics, and the role of science in stimulating growth and development.